Protein, Carbs and Endurance Performance: Finding the Right Balance

I found this article very helpful for understanding more about the importance of fueling up and refueling afterwards. Sometimes active.com has fluff, but in this case, it’s great!

By Nancy Clark, MS RD CSSD, for Active.com

If you are curious about how to best fuel for endurance exercise, here are some tips presented at the 27th Annual SCAN (Sports Nutrition group of the American Dietetic Association) Symposium, April 2010. The information was presented by Asker Jeukendrup PhD, Professor of Exercise Metabolism-University Birmingham in England and Nancy Rodriquez RD PhD, Professor of Nutritional Sciences-University Connecticut.

Carbohydrate Update

Athletes commonly wonder what’s best to eat during long runs, bike rides or other exercise that lasts more than 60 to 90 minutes. The answer depends on your personal tolerance. Some athletes enjoy the convenience of engineered sports foods such as Clif Chomps, PowerGels and Sports Beans. Others prefer the taste (and price) of standard supermarket foods, such as Fig Newtons, dried pineapple and gummy candy. All are equally effective. And because we’re talking about survival more than good nutrition during endurance exercise, you need not tsk tsk yourself for enjoying candy. That’s what your body wants–sugar! (FYI, gels and sports drinks are also just sugar.)

Does it matter if you get your energy from an energy bar as opposed to a sports drink?
No. Both solid foods and liquids (i.e., sports drinks) get burned at the same rate when you are exercising at a pace you can maintain for more than half an hour. Your job is to experiment during training to learn:

1) What settles best in your intestinal tract, and
2) What tastes best to you during extended exercise.

Consuming enough calories is more important than the form of the calories. With endurance athletes, research suggests the faster finishers consume more calories than the slower finishers. (Ironman Champ Chrissie Wellington consumed about 335 calories/hour when she won at Hawaii.) The challenge is to train the intestinal tract to manage that much fuel. If you are an endurance athlete, part of your training program is to practice your fueling so you can train your intestinal tract as well as your heart, lungs and muscles.

How much should you eat to maintain good energy when you’re exercising for longer than 60 to 90 minutes?
The standard recommendation for fueling during endurance exercise has been to target 1 gram of carbohydrate per minute of exercise or 60 grams of carbs per hour, the equivalent of 240 calories. The research, originally done with just glucose, indicated consuming more than 60 grams glucose/hour offered no benefits. The body has a limited number of glucose transporters and can carry only 60 grams out of the intestines, into the blood and to the muscles.

More recent research indicates consuming as variety of sugars (that is, more than just glucose) allows more fuel to become available per hour. That’s because different types of sugars (carbs) use different transporters. Generally, athletes consume more than just glucose. (Sports drinks, for example, tend to have glucose and fructose.) Let’s say you eat a banana that consists of many different types of sugars and uses many different transporters. Your muscles will have access to more fuel (up to 90 grams of carbs/hour; 360 calories) than if you consume just one kind of sugar. Variety is a wise idea!

In general, the recommendations for fueling during exercise are:

  • If you are exercising for less than 45 minutes, no need for fuel during exercise. (As always, enjoy a pre-exercise snack.)
  • For 1 to 2 hours of exercise, target about 30 grams of carbs/hour (120 calories).
  • For 2 to 3 hours of exercise, target about 60 grams of carbs/hr (240 calories).
  • For more than 2.5 hours of exercise, target about 90 grams of mixed carbs (i.e. 360 calories of sports drink, candy, dried fruit or pretzels).

Some serious athletes train first thing in the morning without eating before/during exercise. While doing this may teach the body to burn more fat (hence spare limited glycogen stores), it’s grueling and the verdict is unclear if this will enhance competitive performance. Stay tuned!

What happens if fueling during exercise creates intestinal distress?
You might want to swish and spit. When research subjects just swished and then spat out a sports drink, they improved their performance as compared to swishing and spitting just plain water. How could that be? Receptors in the mouth are linked to the brain. When the mouth gets a swish of sports drink, the brain gets the signal energy is on the way; it’s OK to work harder.

Protein Update

Protein requirements are hard to define because the amount of protein your body needs depends on how many calories you consume. That is, if you are restricting calories, you require more protein than when you eat adequate calories; the protein gets burned for fuel. Dieting athletes should target at least 1 gram of protein/lb. (2 grams protein/kg).

Note: If you are dieting to lose undesired body fat, you are unlikely to lose only body fat and build muscle simultaneously. Building muscle takes energy; dieting restricts energy.

The protein recommendations for non-dieters who consume adequate calories are:

Healthy adults: 0.4 grams of protein/lb (0.8 gm protein/kg)
Strength athletes: 0.5 to 0.8 grams of protein/lb (1.2 to 1.7 grams of protein/kg)
Endurance athletes: 0.5 to 0.6 grams of protein/lb (1.2 to 1.4 grams of protein/kg)

Because the typical athlete’s diet contains more than enough protein, most athletes do not need protein supplements. A protein-rich food with each meal and snack can do the job.

During endurance exercise, should you choose a sports drink with protein?
Not unless you prefer the taste; it does not offer performance advantages over a standard sports drink. The better time to consume protein is after exercise. That is, carbs combined with protein (as in chocolate milk, fruit yogurt, or spaghetti and meatballs) enhances muscle repair.

Consuming some carb/protein combos before you workout, as a part of your pre-exercise meal (cereal and milk, fruit and yogurt) is another option to bolster the supply of protein that will be available both during and after exercise for recovery. (Note: Athletes generally don’t burn much protein for fuel during exercise unless their glycogen (carb) stores are depleted.) The bottom line: Meals and snacks with carbs as the foundation and protein on the side offer the right balance for endurance performance.

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One response to “Protein, Carbs and Endurance Performance: Finding the Right Balance

  1. Here’s a really interesting article about pre-race nutrition for Ryan Hall:

    http://www.facebook.com/mastertheshift#!/mastertheshift?v=app_120924954597506

    (I hope the link works, but if not, it’s Master the Shift on Facebook, and then click the Ryan tab at the top. The article is from May 26, Ryan Hall’s Pre-Race Nutrition. I’m beginning to think all pro runners do is eat and run 🙂 Also, seeing what he drank and ate during his marathon simulation run was very interesting. Enjoy!)

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